Introduction of super Computer

In this article, we will learn about feature of supercomputers in detail with example and also learn the working of supercomputer and also the advantages and disadvantages of supercomputer

Contents

  • What is a supercomputer?
  • Special purpose supercomputer?
  • Working of supercomputer
  • Software and system management
  • Feature of supercomputer
  • Disadvantages of supercomputer
  • Examples of supercomputer
  • Power of supercomputer
  • What software do supercomputers run?
  • Serial and parallel processing
  • Why do supercomputers use parallel processing

 What is a supercomputer?

what is supercomputer, feature of Supercomputers

A supercomputer is a system that can solve complicated calculations quickly. it is a computer with high-level performance as compared to a general-purpose computer. They are thousands of times faster than a common computer. A supercomputer is a computer with a great job of speed and memory.
Super computer s are the best for handling complex problems.

Special purposes of supercomputers:

A supercomputer is used in various fields of heavy scientific and engineering purposes such that weather forecasting, weapon design, and automatic research.
The supercomputer is also used in industry and business fields.
Government use supercomputer for different calculations and heaver jobs.


Video specialists use supercomputers for animation purposes in Hollywood movies.
It is also used in missiles and molecular modeling.
Supercomputer refers to the ability to add a quadrillion (1000 trillion) real number in a second.
Supercomputers are mainly used in applications related to national security, including nuclear weapons and cryptography.

Software and system management:

supercomputer. Supercomputing system required scaled-up software that organized assigns, stores, or processes data in a particular way that make parallel computing power, and some problems are easily solved with parallel computing than others the software that we use in common PC or laptop does not work on.

At the end of the 20th century, the supercomputer operating system has major transformation as fundamental changes have accrued in supercomputer structure
Linux is the supercomputer operating system to choice
The latest report from the top 500, Linux now runs on all the fastest 500, a supercomputer in the world. The last number is 498 as the remaining two supercomputers run UNIX back in around 2017.

The exact reason for this strength is the open-source nature of Linux.
If required an operating system optimized for those specific needs.
UNIX is a closed source operating system, is expensive customized.
Linux is free and easier to customize of Engineers can easily customize a Linux-based operating system for each supercomputer.

 Working of Supercomputer:

Personal computers from the 80s and 90s were serial processers. They performed operations one thing at a time in an orderly manner but supercomputers have made a lot of progress and can perform operations at a time.
But the problems that are extremely complex are like simulating molecular behavior or modeling the Earth`s climate, serial processing by using a modern computer system. It would take away too long a time but supercomputers solve this problem by being able to perform many operations at once.

A modern supercomputer works more quickly by splitting problems into pieces and working on many parts at once that’s called parallel processing.
supercomputer. Supercomputing systems required scaled-up software that organized assigns, stores, or processes data in a particular way that makes parallel computing power and some problems are easily solved with parallel computing than others the software that we use in common PC or laptop does not work on.

Serial and parallel processing:

Serial processing;
A computer that performs one task at a time and it does things in a distinct serial of operations; that is called serial processing.
A supercomputer is not simply a fast and large computer. It works in an entirely different way, typically using parallel processing instead of the serial processing that is used in a common computer.

Parallel processing;
Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or processes are carried out simultaneously. Large problems can often be divided into smaller ones, which can be solved at the same time. There are several different forms of parallel computing like bit-level, instructional-level data, and task parallelism.

Why do supercomputers use parallel processing?

Seeing at writing documents, web pages, sending email and other processes use very little computing power in PC. But complex tasks like making animation for Hollywood movies, changing the color on a very large digital photography, you will know that your computer does, occasionally have to work hard to perform tasks. It takes one minute or so to do really complex operations on very large digital photos.

If you play a video game you will be able to be aware that you need a computer with a fast processer chip and fast working memory (RAM), other things really slow down. Add a faster processer and double memory and your computer will speed up directly, but there is still a limit to how fast it will go: one processer can generally only one thing at a time.

Example

Suppose you are the scientist you want to test the new brain tumor drugs or modeling and charges with weather forecasting how the climate might be in 2060.A problem like pushing that the world’s best computer to the limit. You can upgrade a personal computer with the fastest processer and more memory, so you can do this with a world-class computer. But a limit is that how fast the processer will work and there is so much difference is that will make more memory.

The best way to make a difference is to use parallel processing: add more processers, put your problems in chunks, and get each processer working on an individual chunk of problems in parallel processing.
The parallel computer can roughly be classified according to the level at which the hardware support parallel processing


Multi-core

Multi-processing
Multi-processing has multi-processing elements within a single machine, while clusters, MPPs, and grids use multiple computers to work on the same task.
Special parallel computer architectures are used alongside traditional processors for specific tasks.

There are many different forms of parallel computers:
Bit-level
Instruction- level
Data and task parallelism
Parallel computing has long been employed in high-performance computing but has broader interest due to the physical constraints preventing computing frequency scaling.

Advantages of supercomputers:

In this part, I will be covering about advantages of supercomputers;

Processing time/Speed
Security
Lower cost/cost-effective
Complex task
Environment effective
Processing time/Speed
The primary advantage is that the supercomputer offers the lowest processing time. Computer speed is usually measured in “floating-point operations” or “FLOPS”.
Supercomputers are tens of thousands of times faster than our personal desktop computers.

Supercomputers are the best computer in the world due to their processing speed. They usually take very less time amount of time for solving calculations. As compared to the normal computer, this rate is almost 100-1000X lesser. Simply a task that takes many hours to complete can be finished by a supercomputer in a fraction of seconds.

Security;

A supercomputer provides the highest protection by decrypting the password. Password in other devices will be decrypted by the supercomputer. Supercomputers can easily be guess passwords.
Supercomputers can have applications in cyber security as well, but according to experts, the days when that a reality are ahead.
Supercomputers handle security issues completely. In scientific computers, the supercomputer can also help to make the super world place in security.

Lower cost / effective cost;
By performing different tasks and managing different activities supercomputers are the best with the lowest cost. Companies use the supercomputer to save a lot of time in managing tasks without paying many employee salaries. By using a supercomputer there is no need for organizations to purchase expensive physical models.

Complex tasks;
Many complex tasks are performed by using supercomputers such as weather forecasting, rendering or animations can easily do with the help of a supercomputer.
Such computers have been used for scientific and engineering that required high-speed computations.

Environment-friendly;
A supercomputer is user-friendly to increase by providing a virtualized testing environment for scientific and medical research. Real-time testing such as nuclear weapon testing is known to cause many hazards to the environment.

Disadvantages of supercomputers:

Power Consumption;
Supercomputers basically consumed a large amount of power. A supercomputer requires about 4 of electricity. This amount is almost 5000x greater than the normal 4 megawatts(MW) desktop computer.
Heat release;
A supercomputer that has a large number of processers is generating a large amount of heat during operations. A proper cooling system is required to be installed. A proper air condition system is required for the protection of devices.
Storage;
In order to require the full capacity of a supercomputer, it should be equipped with enough storage space. Without sufficient storage space to store all data, the supercomputer cannot perform calculations and other operations.

Physical size;
A supercomputer is very large in size. It takes more and more space. A supercomputer takes more than 1000 square feet of area.
Maintenance;
The major disadvantage is that it required expert staff for monitoring and administrating the supercomputer. Special software is used in the supercomputer which needs expert staff to perform complex tasks.

Example of a supercomputer:

Traditional examples of supercomputers are as follows:
ASCI White
Roadrunner
Deep Blue
Blue Gene

Summit Supercomputer
Sierra Supercomputer
Sunway TaihuLight Supercomputer
Tianhe-2 supercomputer
Frontera supercomputer
Cray-1
Fugaku
PARAM-Siddhi

Linux operating system and interconnecting the processer with fast Ethernet applications must be managed in a supercomputer.
The top500 projects update their list of the world fastest supercomputers in the year
10 million-core super computer hit 93 petaflops, tripling speed record.

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